http访问强制跳转到https

一、采用nginx的rewrite方法:
1) 下面是将所有的http请求通过rewrite重写到https上。
例如将所有的caidaoli.com域名的http访问强制跳转到https。
下面配置均可以实现:

配置1:

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name caidaoli.com;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
   
    access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
    error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;
     
    rewrite ^(.*)$  https://$host$1 permanent;        //这是ngixn早前的写法,现在还可以使用。
  
    location ~ / {
    root /var/www/html/8080;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }

——————————————————-
上面的跳转配置rewrite ^(.*)$ https://$host$1 permanent;
也可以改为下面
rewrite ^/(.*)$ http://caidaoli.com/$1 permanent;
或者
rewrite ^ http://caidaoli.com$request_uri? permanent;
——————————————————-

配置2:

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name caidaoli.com;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
   
    access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
    error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;
 
    return      301 https://$server_name$request_uri;      //这是nginx最新支持的写法
  
    location ~ / {
    root /var/www/html/8080;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }

配置3:这种方式适用于多域名的时候,即访问ftp.caidaoli.com的http也会强制跳转到https://caidaoli.com上面

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name caidaoli.com www.caidaoli.com *.caidaoli.com;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
   
    access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
    error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;
     
    if ($host ~* "^caidaoli.com$") {
    rewrite ^/(.*)$ https://caidaoli.com/ permanent;
    }
  
    location ~ / {
    root /var/www/html/8080;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }
配置4:下面是最简单的一种配置
server {
    listen 80;
    server_name caidaoli.com;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
   
    access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
    error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;
     
    if ($host = "caidaoli.com") {
       rewrite ^/(.*)$ http://caidaoli.com permanent;
    }
 
    location ~ / {
    root /var/www/html/8080;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }

二、采用nginx的497状态码
497 – normal request was sent to HTTPS
解释:当网站只允许https访问时,当用http访问时nginx会报出497错误码

思路:
利用error_page命令将497状态码的链接重定向到https://caidaoli.com这个域名上

配置实例:
如下访问www.caidaoli.com或者caidaoli.com的http都会被强制跳转到https

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name www.caidaoli.com caidaoli.com *.caidaoli.com;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
   
    access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
    error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;
     
    error_page 497  https://$host$uri?$args; 
  
    location ~ / {
    root /var/www/html/8080;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }

也可以将80和443的配置放在一起:

server { 
    listen       127.0.0.1:443;  #ssl端口 
    listen       127.0.0.1:80;   #用户习惯用http访问,加上80,后面通过497状态码让它自动跳到443端口 
    server_name  caidaoli.com; 
    #为一个server{......}开启ssl支持 
    ssl                  on; 
    #指定PEM格式的证书文件  
    ssl_certificate      /etc/nginx/caidaoli.pem;  
    #指定PEM格式的私钥文件 
    ssl_certificate_key  /etc/nginx/caidaoli.key; 
       
    #让http请求重定向到https请求  
    error_page 497  https://$host$uri?$args; 
 
    location ~ / {
    root /var/www/html/8080;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }

三、利用meta的刷新作用将http跳转到https
上述的方法均会耗费服务器的资源,可以借鉴百度使用的方法:巧妙的利用meta的刷新作用,将http跳转到https
可以基于http://caidaoli.com的虚拟主机路径下写一个index.html,内容就是http向https的跳转

将下面的内容追加到index.html首页文件内

[root@localhost ~]# cat /var/www/html/8080/index.html
<meta http-equiv="refresh" content="0;url=https://caidaoli.com/"> 
 [root@localhost ~]# cat /usr/local/nginx/conf/vhosts/test.conf
server {
    listen 80;
    server_name www.caidaoli.com caidaoli.com *.caidaoli.com;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
   
    access_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-access.log main;
    error_log  /usr/local/nginx/logs/8080-error.log;
     
    #将404的页面重定向到https的首页 
    error_page  404 https://caidaoli.com/;  
  
    location ~ / {
    root /var/www/html/8080;         
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }

下面是nginx反代tomcat,并且http强制跳转至https。
访问http://abc.caidaoli.com和访问http://172.29.34.33:8080/abc/结果是一样的

[root@BJLX_34_33_V vhosts]# cat abc.conf
server {
    listen 80;
    server_name abc.caidaoli.com;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    
    access_log  logs/access.log;
    error_log   logs/error.log;
  
    return      301 https://$server_name$request_uri;     
     
    location ~ / {
    root /data/nginx/html;
    index index.html index.php index.htm;
    }
    }
 
 
[root@BJLX_34_33_V vhosts]# cat ssl-abc.conf
upstream tomcat8 {
    server 172.29.34.33:8080 max_fails=3 fail_timeout=30s;
}
 
server {
   listen 443;
   server_name abc.caidaoli.com;
   ssl on;
 
   ### SSL log files ###
   access_log logs/ssl-access.log;
   error_log logs/ssl-error.log;
 
### SSL cert files ###
   ssl_certificate ssl/caidaoli.cer;     
   ssl_certificate_key ssl/caidaoli.key;  
   ssl_session_timeout 5m;
 
   location / {
   proxy_pass http://tomcat8/abc/;                                     
   proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503;
   proxy_set_header Host $host;
   proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
   proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
   proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto https;
   proxy_redirect off;
}
}

四、通过proxy_redirec方式———————
解决办法:

# re-write redirects to http as to https, example: /home
proxy_redirect http:// https://;
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